Monday, February 27, 2017

Paulette Goddard

Paulette Goddard was a child model who debuted in "The Ziegfeld Follies" at the age of 13. She gained fame with the show as the girl on the crescent moon, and was married to a wealthy man by the time she was 16. After her divorce she went to Hollywood in 1931, where she appeared in small roles in pictures for a number of studios. A stunning natural...

Paulette Goddard (born Marion Levy; June 3, 1910 – April 23, 1990) was an American actress. A child fashion model and a performer in several Broadway productions as a Ziegfeld Girl, she became a major star of the Paramount Studio in the 1940s. Her most notable films were her first major role, as Charles Chaplin's leading lady in Modern Times, and Chaplin's subsequent film The Great Dictator. She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in So Proudly We Hail! (1943). Her husbands included Chaplin, Burgess Meredith, and Erich Maria Remarque.

Goddard was the only child of Joseph Russell Levy (1881–1954), who was Jewish, and the son of a prosperous cigar manufacturer from Salt Lake City, and of Alta Mae Goddard (1887–1983), who was Episcopalian and of English heritage.[11][12] They married in 1908 and separated while their daughter was very young, although the divorce did not become final until 1926. According to Goddard, her father left them, but according to J.R. Levy, Alta absconded with the child.[11] Goddard was raised by her mother, and did not meet her father again until the late 1930s, after she had become famous.[13]

In a 1938 interview published in Collier's, Goddard claimed Levy was not her biological father.[13] In response, Levy filed a suit against his daughter, claiming that the interview had ruined his reputation and cost him his job, and demanded financial support from her. In a December 17, 1945, article written by Oliver Jensen in Life Magazine, Goddard admitted to having lost the case and being forced to pay her father $35 a week.

To avoid a custody battle, her mother and she moved often during her childhood, even relocating to Canada at one point.[11] Goddard began modelling at an early age to support her mother and herself, working for Saks Fifth Avenue and Hattie Carnegie, among others. An important figure in her childhood was her great-uncle, Charles Goddard, the owner of the American Druggists Syndicate. He played a central role in Goddard's career, introducing her to Broadway impresario Florenz Ziegfeld.[11]

In 1926, she made her stage debut as a dancer in Ziegfeld's summer review, No Foolin', which was also the first time that she used the stage name Paulette Goddard.[14] Ziegfeld hired her for another musical, Rio Rita, which opened in February 1927, but she left the show after only three weeks to appear in the play The Unconquerable Male, produced by Archie Selwyn.[15] It was, however, a flop and closed after only three days following its premiere in Atlantic City.[15]

Soon after the play closed, Goddard was introduced to Edgar James, president of the Southern Lumber Company, located in Asheville, North Carolina, by Charles Goddard.[16] Aged 17, considerably younger than James, they married on June 28, 1927, in Rye, New York. It was a short marriage, and Goddard was granted a divorce in Reno, Nevada, in 1929, receiving a divorce settlement of $375,000.[16]

Goddard first visited Hollywood in 1929, when she appeared as an uncredited extra in two films, the Laurel and Hardy short film Berth Marks, and George Fitzmaurice's drama The Locked Door.[17] Following her divorce, she briefly visited Europe before returning to Hollywood in late 1930 with her mother. Her second attempt at acting was no more successful than the first, as she landed work only as an extra. In 1932, she signed her first film contract with producer Samuel Goldwyn to appear as a Goldwyn Girl in The Kid from Spain. However, Goldwyn and she did not get along, and she began working for Hal Roach, appearing in a string of uncredited supporting roles for the next four years.[17]

The year she signed with Goldwyn, Goddard began dating Charlie Chaplin, a relationship that received substantial attention from the press.[17][18] It marked a turning point in Goddard's career when Chaplin cast her as his leading lady in his next box office hit, Modern Times, in 1936. Her role as "The Gamin", an orphan girl who runs away from the authorities and becomes The Tramp's companion, was her first credited film appearance and garnered her mainly positive reviews, Frank S. Nugent of The New York Times describing her as "the fitting recipient of the great Charlot's championship".[17]

Following the success of Modern Times, Chaplin planned other projects with Goddard in mind as a co-star, but he worked slowly, and Goddard worried that the public might forget about her if she did not continue to make regular film appearances. She signed a contract with David O. Selznick and appeared with Janet Gaynor in the comedy The Young in Heart (1938) before Selznick loaned her to MGM to appear in two films. The first of these, Dramatic School (1938), co-starred Luise Rainer, but the film received mediocre reviews and failed to attract an audience.[19] Her next film, The Women (1939), was a success. With an all-female cast headed by Norma Shearer, Joan Crawford, and Rosalind Russell, the film's supporting role of Miriam Aarons was played by Goddard. Pauline Kael would later comment of Goddard, "she is a stand-out. She's fun."[20]

Selznick was pleased with Goddard's performances, particularly her work in The Young at Heart, and considered her for the role of Scarlett O'Hara. Initial screen tests convinced the director George Cukor and him that Goddard would require coaching to be effective in the role, but that she showed promise,[21] and she was the first actress given a Technicolor screen test.[21] Russell Birdwell, the head of Selznick's publicity department, had strong misgivings about Goddard. He warned Selznick of the "tremendous avalanche of criticism that will befall us and the picture should Paulette be given this part ... I have never known a woman, intent on a career dependent upon her popularity with the masses, to hold and live such an insane and absurd attitude towards the press and her fellow man as does Paulette Goddard ... Briefly, I think she is dynamite that will explode in our very faces if she is given the part." Selznick remained interested in Goddard and after he had been introduced to Vivien Leigh, he wrote to his wife that Leigh was a "dark horse" and that his choice had "narrowed down to Paulette, Jean Arthur, Joan Bennett, and Vivien Leigh".[21]

After a series of tests with Leigh that pleased both Selznick and Cukor, Selznick cancelled the further tests that had been scheduled for Goddard, and the part was given to Leigh.[21] It has been suggested that Goddard lost the part because Selznick feared that questions surrounding her marital status with Charlie Chaplin would result in scandal. However, Selznick was aware that Leigh and Laurence Olivier lived together, as their respective spouses had refused to divorce them,[22] and in addition to offering Leigh a contract, he engaged Olivier as the leading man in his next production Rebecca (1940).[23] Chaplin's biographer Joyce Milton wrote that Selznick was worried about legal issues by signing her to a contract that might conflict with her preexisting contracts with the Chaplin studio.[24]

Paulette Goddard in a publicity shot for A Stranger Came Home (1954)
Goddard signed a contract with Paramount Pictures and her next film The Cat and the Canary (1939) with Bob Hope, was a turning point in the careers of both actors. She starred with Chaplin again in his 1940 film, The Great Dictator. The couple split amicably soon afterward, and Goddard allegedly obtained a divorce in Mexico in 1942, with Chaplin agreeing to a generous settlement. She was Fred Astaire's leading lady in Second Chorus (1940), where she met her third husband, actor Burgess Meredith. One of her best-remembered film appearances was in the variety musical Star Spangled Rhythm (1943), in which she sang a comic number, "A Sweater, a Sarong, and a Peekaboo Bang", with Dorothy Lamour and Veronica Lake.[25]

She received one Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress, for the 1943 film So Proudly We Hail!, but did not win. Her most successful film was Kitty (1945), in which she played the title role. In The Diary of a Chambermaid (1946), she starred opposite Burgess Meredith, to whom she was married at the time. Cecil B. DeMille cast her in three blockbusters: North West Mounted Police (1940), Reap the Wild Wind (1942), and Unconquered (1947).[25] During the Hollywood Blacklist, when she and blacklisted husband Meredith were mobbed by a baying crowd screaming "Communists!" on their way to a premiere, Goddard is said to have turned to her husband and said, "Shall I roll down the window and hit them with my diamonds, Bugsy?"

In 1947, she made An Ideal Husband in Britain for Alexander Korda, and was accompanied on a publicity trip to Brussels by Clarissa Spencer-Churchill, niece of Sir Winston Churchill and future wife of future Prime Minister Anthony Eden. In 1949, she formed Monterey Pictures with John Steinbeck. Her last starring roles were the English production A Stranger Came Home (known as The Unholy Four in the United States), and Charge of the Lancers in 1954. She also acted in summer stock and on television, including the 1955 television remake of The Women, this time playing the Sylvia Fowler role, however.[18]

An 18th century London wench gets involved with the nobility.  London, 1783: Kitty, a saucy wench of the slums, meets the painter Gainsborough by stealing his shoes. He paints her as an "anonymous lady" who excites the interest of his noble friends, notably penniless Sir Hugh Marcy, who schemes to pass Kitty off as a genuine lady (a formidable task) and marry her off for financial gain. But Kitty has her own ideas about the uses of matrimony. Lots of decolletage.

Director: Mitchell Leisen
Writers: Rosamond Marshall (novel), Karl Tunberg | 1 more credit »
Stars: Paulette Goddard, Ray Milland, Patric Knowles

Enterprise Video Streaming
Actress (64 credits)
 1972The Snoop Sisters (TV Series)
Norma Treet
The Female Instinct (1972) ... Norma Treet
 1964Time of Indifference
 1961The Phantom (TV Movie)
Mrs. Harris
 1953-1957The Ford Television Theatre (TV Series)
Holly March / Nancy Whiting
Singapore (1957) ... Holly March
The Doctor's Downfall (1953) ... Nancy Whiting
 1957The Joseph Cotten Show: On Trial (TV Series)
The Ghost of Devil's Island (1957) ... Dolly
 1956The Errol Flynn Theatre (TV Series)
Mademoiselle Fifi (1956) ... Rachel
 1955Producers' Showcase (TV Series)
Sylvia Fowler
The Women (1955) ... Sylvia Fowler
 1954Sherlock Holmes (TV Series)
Lady Nina Beryl
The Case of Lady Beryl (1954) ... Lady Nina Beryl
 1954The Unholy Four
 1953Paris Model
Betty Barnes
 1953Vice Squad
Mona Ross
 1952Babes in Bagdad
 1950The Torch
María Dolores Penafiel
Ellen Crane
 1944I Love a Soldier
Evelyn Connors
 1943So Proudly We Hail!
Lt. Joan O'Doul
 1943The Crystal Ball
Toni Gerard
 1942The Forest Rangers
Celia Huston Stuart
 1941Nothing But the Truth
Gwen Saunders
 1941Pot o' Gold
Molly McCorkle
 1940Second Chorus
Ellen Miller
 1940North West Mounted Police
Louvette Corbeau
 1940The Great Dictator
 1939The Cat and the Canary
Joyce Norman
 1938The Young in Heart
Leslie Saunders
 1936The Bohemian Girl
Gypsy Vagabond (unconfirmed, uncredited)
 1934Kid Millions
Goldwyn Girl (uncredited)
 1933Roman Scandals
Goldwyn Girl (uncredited)
 1933The Bowery
Blonde (uncredited)
 1932The Kid from Spain
Goldwyn Girl (uncredited)
 1932Girl Grief (Short)
Student (uncredited)
 1932Pack Up Your Troubles
Bridesmaid (uncredited)
 1932Young Ironsides (Short)
Miss Hollywood (uncredited)
 1932Show Business (Short)
Blonde Train Passenger (uncredited)
 1932The Mouthpiece
Platinum Blonde at Party (uncredited)
 1931Ladies of the Big House
Inmate in Midst of Crowd (uncredited)
 1931Palmy Days
Goldwyn Girl (uncredited)
 1931The Girl Habit
Lingerie salesgirl
 1931City Streets
Nightclub Patron (uncredited)
Goldwyn Girl (uncredited)
 1929The Locked Door
Girl on Rum Boat (uncredited)
 1929Berth Marks (Short)
Train Passenger (uncredited)

Saturday, February 4, 2017

Caroline Kennedy: Donald Trump's 'America first' approach is 'alarming'

In an exclusive interview with TODAY's Matt Lauer, Caroline Kennedy, the former U.S. ambassador to Japan, said she's troubled by President Donald Trump's "America first" approach to foreign policy.
"To be taken for granted, or to be insulted as an ally who has fought alongside the United States for example, with Australia, or who contributes a huge amount to American security, in the case of Japan and Korea, is alarming and I think that, hopefully, the president will realize the benefits of working with our friends and allies around the region," Kennedy said.

Thursday, February 2, 2017

Walt Disney's - Victory Through Air Power (1943, 720p)

Billy Mitchell

Years before Japanese military officers considered going to war with the United States, a Milwaukeean anticipated just such an attack.

Not only did Billy Mitchell think Japan would one day attack the United States, but he also thought it would be an aerial bombardment on ships in an American harbor.

He was right, although off by a couple decades.

After visiting Japan while stationed with the Army in the Philippines, Mitchell wrote in 1910, “That increasing friction between Japan and the U.S. will take place in the future there can be little doubt, and that this will lead to war sooner or later seems quite certain.”

Mitchell is a tragic figure in American military history. He foresaw a need for a strong air force long before anyone else in the military, and to prove his point to skeptical commanders who thought the idea of planes sinking ships was absurd, Mitchell arranged a demonstration. It worked. He returned from World War I with a chest full of medals and a head full of ideas considered radical to a staid, rapidly downsizing military uninterested in preparing for future conflicts.

In speeches, books and magazine articles, Mitchell predicted that one day rockets would travel across continents and oceans and people would zip between New York and London in as few as six hours on fast commercial airliners. He foresaw air forces attacking targets with unmanned aerial vehicles — he didn’t call them drones — and cruise missiles. He predicted that someday planes would be used for firefighting, evacuating the sick and wounded, photographing terrain, crop dusting and spying on enemies.

Mitchell was brash, bold and antagonistic. He was certain he was right, and anyone who disagreed became an opponent. He often was correct but needlessly made enemies of people who could have been valuable allies.

By the time Japanese torpedo bombers were dropping shells on the USS Arizona, Vestal and other ships in Pearl Harbor, Mitchell was dead. Within months of the Pearl Harbor attack, Doolittle’s Raiders would make the first strike against the Japanese homeland in B-25 bombers named after Mitchell, the same plane that graces the entrance of Milwaukee’s airport, also named after Mitchell. Jimmy Doolittle, the man leading the raid and flying the first B-25 off the deck of the aircraft carrier USS Hornet, had been a Mitchell aide.

Doolittle was awarded the Medal of Honor for the bombing raid of Japan. “He was ahead of his time,” Doolittle said of Mitchell. But “the methods he used were so stringent that they destroyed him, and probably delayed the development of air power for a period of time.”

Links to MacArthur

Mitchell’s father, John Lendrum Mitchell, served as a first lieutenant in the 24th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment during the Civil War along with Arthur MacArthur — father of Douglas — participating in the Battles of Perryville, Murfreesboro and Chattanooga. Both men’s sons would serve with great distinction, earn numerous medals, greatly affect the American military and end their careers under clouded circumstances. Mitchell’s son was court-martialed; MacArthur’s son was fired by President Harry Truman during the Korean War.

The lives of Billy Mitchell and Douglas MacArthur were intertwined from childhood, when they were boyhood friends in Milwaukee. Billy Mitchell fought in the Philippines in 1898 in Gen. Arthur MacArthur’s division, and when Douglas MacArthur arrived in France in October 1917 as a major in the 42nd Rainbow Division, Billy Mitchell was already in the country and welcomed him as commanding officer of the U.S. Air Service. Both belonged to the Alonzo Cudworth Jr. American Legion Post in Milwaukee. And in 1925, one of the jurors at Mitchell’s court-martial was Douglas MacArthur.

Decades before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Mitchell’s father had bitterly denounced America’s attempt to annex the Hawaiian Islands. While representing Wisconsin in the U.S. Senate, John Lendrum Mitchell grew disgusted by President William McKinley’s policy of collecting land as war souvenirs, including Guantanamo Bay in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Hawaii, too, was coveted by business and military interests for its strategic location in the Pacific Ocean. To John Lendrum Mitchell, Hawaii was not America’s to grab.

The joint congressional resolution annexing Hawaii passed on July 4, 1898. American military bases soon sprung up on Hawaii, and by 1906, the entire island of Oahu — which would become home to Pearl Harbor — was fortified by gun batteries.

Roots in Milwaukee

Mitchell grew up in a wealthy Milwaukee family with strong political connections. His grandfather, Alexander Mitchell, emigrated from Scotland to Milwaukee and found work as a clerk with the new Marine Fire and Insurance Co., later founding what would become the Marine Bank and owning the largest railroad in the Midwest: the Milwaukee Road. Mitchell St. and Mitchell Park are named after Alexander, whose son John Lendrum Mitchell was president of the Milwaukee School Board before representing Wisconsin’s 4th District in the House of Representatives and then the U.S. Senate.

When Billy Mitchell turned 18, he enlisted in the Army, joining the 1st Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry and was sent to Camp Cuba Libre in Jacksonville, Fla., to train for fighting in Cuba in the Spanish-American War. Mitchell was bitterly disappointed to miss out on the war — though he later served in occupation forces in Cuba. He was later commissioned an officer and posted to a signal corps unit in Washington, D.C.

The man who would eventually become known as the father of the U.S. Air Force became interested in aviation while stationed in Alaska. Bored while snowed in and waiting for better weather to install telegraph wire for the Army, Mitchell read articles on aircraft development. Fascinated by planes, he watched Orville Wright demonstrate the Wright Flyer in Virginia, took flying lessons and earned his pilot’s license.

With so few pilots serving in the American military, Mitchell, almost by default, became an expert on aviation issues and was asked to help draft legislation to keep military aviation under the authority of the Army Signal Corps. Mitchell is credited with being the first American Army officer to venture into the fighting trenches during World War I, where he saw the tactical folly of digging holes in the earth, which led to incredible losses of life and yearslong stalemates. He quickly understood that planes could render trenches obsolete and Mitchell persuaded the French premier to ask the U.S. War Department for 4,500 planes, 5,000 pilots and 50,000 mechanics to help the Allies gain air supremacy.

It was the start of America’s air force.

He later wrote in his memoirs of the Great War that for armies to win, it was necessary to slowly decimate opposing troops, destroying a country’s resources and people. Mitchell thought air power was the answer to the slaughter in the trenches.

Flying a French Spad two-seat observation plane and later an American-made Vought VE-7 fighter plane, Mitchell repeatedly flew into enemy territory to assess German lines. His personal insignia — a silver eagle on a red field — was painted on the fuselage. He was not greatly skilled at combat but was a genius at air tactics. In September 1918, he organized an attack involving more than 1,400 planes flown by American, French, British and Italian pilots that knocked out German supply depots and aircraft hangars. He ordered the construction of fake hangars and fake planes to fool German observation pilots into thinking the Allied air fleet was much larger, a tactic later used during World War II before the D-Day invasion.

Expecting war to continue into 1919, Mitchell devised an innovative plan to convert large, long-range aircraft into troop transports, each plane carrying 10 to 15 soldiers who could parachute behind enemy lines. The soldiers could assemble for action under cover of low-flying attack planes, Mitchell recommended, in a coordinated air and infantry assault. Resupplies of food and ammunition could be dropped by air. But the war ended in November 1918, and Mitchell soon was campaigning for a large expansion of military air power. He didn’t think peace would last.

Mitchell ended his memoir of World War I, the only world war he would see, with an admonition: “I wondered how soon we should have to come back to Europe in arms again — never, I hope. It is not our place unless we intend to take charge of the destinies of the world, which at this time seems a little premature.”

No one listening

In April 1919, shortly after he was appointed chief of training and operations in the air service, he was invited by acting secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt to meet with Navy commanders. Mitchell told the admirals that unless the Navy developed an air force, its battleships were in danger of destruction from the air. He proposed building aircraft carriers and suggested arming planes with torpedoes, armor-piercing bombs and larger guns. In a New York Herald article in December 1919, Mitchell wrote, “Air power will prevail over the water in a very short space of time.” A few months later, he used elaborate charts to illustrate to military commanders how, in his opinion, 1,000 planes could be built for the same cost as one battleship.

Many of his words fell on deaf ears.

By the early 1920s, Mitchell was growing more concerned about the military budget; he thought too much money was being spent on ships and not enough on planes. Convinced that aircraft were key to the military’s future, Mitchell urged a demonstration of air power, pointing out that while an army fights on land and a navy fights on water, an air force could do battle over both. But Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels was having none of it. So convinced of the Navy’s superiority over planes, he warned Mitchell that if he tried to drop bombs on ships, Mitchell’s planes would be shot down long before they could get close.

In testimony before a congressional committee, Mitchell vividly described what would happen from direct hits on ships as bombs falling from the sky pierced decks and superstructures: blasts would create fires, killing everyone on the upper decks, breaking lights and throwing the ship into complete darkness below deck, disrupting all communication systems, filling rooms with poisonous fumes, causing shell shock to most on board, disrupting ammunition delivery systems and exploding anti-aircraft shells stored in ammunition compartments. His description eerily described the grisly scene on board the USS Arizona on Dec. 7, 1941.

In 1924, Mitchell toured Hawaii and Asia to inspect America’s military assets. After touring China, Korea, Japan, Siam, Singapore, Burma, Java, the Philippines and India, Mitchell wrote a 340-page report warning that the Asia-Pacific Rim could soon rival Europe in military might and America’s security depended on its foothold in the region. To Mitchell, however, Japan was the country that posed the greatest threat because of its growing military strength and its quest for external sources of oil and iron for Japanese industries.

In his 1925 book, “Winged Defense,” Mitchell detailed how Japan might attack Hawaii — starting at 7:30 a.m. with 60 Japanese pursuit planes destroying hangars and planes on the ground at Schofield Barracks, followed by 100 bombers striking Pearl Harbor’s naval base.

Though Mitchell correctly predicted the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he did get some things wrong. He thought the Japanese would attack using land-based air power with submarines transporting airplanes in crates for assembly at an airfield on the northern Hawaiian island of Niihau and bombers flown from Midway Island. He undervalued aircraft carriers, contending that the large ships could not operate efficiently nor launch a sufficient number of aircraft for a concentrated operation. Also, Mitchell didn’t need a crystal ball to predict a Japanese offensive at 7:30 a.m. since military commanders often favor morning attacks.

Mitchell’s career effectively came to an end — though it could be said it was a long time coming — with the fatal crash of the Navy dirigible Shenandoah in September 1925. Because the Navy had scheduled a packed itinerary for the Shenandoah, visiting 27 cities between New Jersey and Iowa, the dirigible’s commander was under pressure to arrive on time at each city. Over Ohio, the Shenandoah flew into a storm, and though it could have steered clear, the dirigible would have missed local fair appearances, and the captain continued into the squall. It crashed, killing 14 crew members.

Mitchell was apoplectic. In a statement he issued to the press, he blamed the disasters on the incompetency and criminal negligence of top military commanders. One month later, he was court-martialed and convicted of conduct that discredited the military. He was suspended from duty for five years without pay. Within two months of the verdict, Mitchell resigned. He spent the next decade writing articles and talking to anyone who would listen about the need for a strong air force. He died in 1936 of influenza and, following his funeral at Milwaukee’s St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, was buried at Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee next to his father and grandfather.
The personal insignia he ordered painted on his World War I plane was incorporated into the U.S. Air Force Combat Action Badge, first awarded in 2007 to Air Force members who come under enemy fire. The medal features a crimson- and gold-striped ribbon and a medal of an eagle clutching arrows surrounding by a laurel wreath.

Special print section marks Pearl Harbor 75th anniversary

"A Day of Infamy" commemorates the 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The special print section includes rarely seen photos and maps, essays by President George H.W. Bush and journalist Tom Brokaw, and stories about how Wisconsin answered the call to serve. It is available for purchase at, while supplies last.

The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell (1955) Gary Cooper - Elizabeth Montgomery